A sudden ground motion or
vibration of the Earth. Produced by a rapid release of stored-up energy
along an active fault.
Term describing the process of wind erosion, transport, and deposition, and wind-created deposits and structures such as sand dunes.
The largest time unit on
the geologic time scale.
A stream drainage that is usually dry and fills with water only during brief episodes of rainfall. Many desert streams ephemeral.
The point on the Earth’s
surface located directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Family of silicate minerals containing mostly calcium, aluminum, iron and magnesium along with water. Epidote is apple green and generally forms very small, stubby, prismatic crystals. It often occurs in veins or as a green coating on fracture surfaces. Most common in metamorphic rocks, but occasionally forms in igneous plutons that crystallize very deep in the crust.
Removal of material by water,
wind, or ice.
Occurs when solid, liquid, or gaseous volcanic materials are ejected into the Earth’s atmosphere or surface by volcanic activity. Eruptions may occur as quiet lava flows or violent explosive events.
In geology, the process of stretching the Earth’s crust. Usually cracks (faults) form, and some blocks sink, forming sedimentary basins.
Igneous rocks that cool and solidify rapidly at or very near the Earth’s surface. Also known as volcanic rocks.
A fan-shaped sedimentary deposit that forms where rapidly flowing water enters a relatively open, flat area. As water slows down, it deposits sediment and gradually builds a fan. See alluvial fan.
A fracture in the Earth along
which one side has moved in relative to the other. Sudden movements
on faults cause earthquakes.
A steep slope or cliff formed
when movement along a fault exposes the fault surface.
Family of silicate minerals
containing varying amounts of potassium, sodium and calcium along with
aluminum, silicon and oxygen. Potassium feldspars contain considerable
potassium. Plagioclase feldspars contain considerable sodium and calcium.
Feldspar crystals are stubby prisms, generally white, gray, or pink.
A term used to describe light-colored
igneous rocks with an abundance of light-colored minerals, especially
feldspars and quartz.
Partially compacted snow
that survives the summer melting season.
A term used by glaciologists
(scientists who study glaciers) for the boundary where the amount of
snow loss from melting and evaporation equals the amount of snow accumulation
from snowfall (also called the annual snowline).
Microscopic tunnels made in crystals by escaping nuclear particles emitted by radioactive elements. Most commonly studied are fission tracks in zircon crystals made by the radioactive decay of uranium, present as an impurity.
Elongate, narrow fractures.
Term used to describe sedimentary or metamorphic rocks that tend to split into layers that are 1-10 cm thick.
A lake, stream, or other body of water that flows over its natural confining boundaries. During a flood, water flows out over land not normally covered with water.
A relatively flat surface next to a stream. During floods, when the stream overflows its banks, water flows over the flood plain. Streams construct flood plains that accommodate their maximum flood capacity.
A general term for a type
of cave decoration or speleothem that encrusts floors or walls of caves.
Term used to describe river or stream-related features or processes. Fluvial deposits are sediments deposited by the flowing water of a stream.
The location where an earthquake
begins. Rock ruptures at this spot, then seismic waves radiate outward
in all directions.
Aligned layers of minerals
characteristic of some metamorphic rocks. Foliation forms in metamorphic
rocks when pressure squeezes flat or elongates minerals so that they
become aligned. These rocks develop a platy or sheet-like structure
that reflects the direction that pressure was applied.
A rock formation is a body of rock of considerable extent with distinctive characteristics that allow geologists to map, describe, and name it.
Mineralized remains or traces of organisms.
General term for any hydrocarbon used as fuel, including coal, oil, natural gas, and oil shale.
Any break in rock along which no significant movement has occurred.
In colder temperate regions, water trapped in fractures and between grains of rocks repeatedly freezes, then thaws during the winter months. In some areas this occurs on a daily basis as water freezes at night, then melts in warmer daytime temperatures.
Only in the coldest regions does water remain frozen throughout the winter.
A process that mechanically breaks apart rock caused by expansion of water as it freezes in cracks and crevices.
A volcanic vent that emits hydrogen sulfide or other gases.